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In practice there are two types of community participation:
1. Instrumental Participation;
2. Transformational Participation.
Instrumental Participation is when the community is engaged in activities as means of achieving certain targets set by an outsider of which the results are not sustainable. Usually in this type of participation, an outsider; the so-called donor of partners comes with the ideas on what are the problems, needs or the rights of the local people. Then the so called participation or involvement is an instrument to endorse the ideas of the donor or partner and justify the funding by the back donor.
Transformational Participation on the other side is different. It is when the initiative is viewed as means of achieving some high objective of long lasting self-help in the community. This type of participation is sustainable – the community will have built in structures built that ensure continuity of the project after the external support is withdrawn.
The ideal Community Participation imparts into the people sense of ownership of the programme as the community makes reflection that they can collectively get solutions for their felt needs and rights. In order for the communities to arrive to this level of Transformational Participation, they need to take responsibility, create mechanism to maintain the programme, take part in problem identification, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation for further adjustment.